These few main disciplines are gateways to other sciences, the social sciences and other forms of art.
Without acquiring these thinking patterns students will be completely dependent on others to formulate views about the world. These forms of thinking will serve students well no matter what profession they eventually enter. Knowledge of facts is a useful ornament but a fundamentally different undertaking than thinking in a discipline. At university and graduate level or in the workplace, the target profession will determine the relevant discipline that should be pursued and the structure and processes of these disciplines should be mastered ahead of facts and figures.
In the end, the achievement of a disciplined mind breeds a desire for more, thereby fuelling the desire for ongoing, life-long learning. Perhaps at one time in the past an individual could acquire his professional license and then coast on his laurels for the next years. But today there is no career to which this characterisation still applies. Indeed, the more important the profession is considered to be, the more essential to continue ones education. Equally important in the development of the disciplined mind is the other kind of discipline — referring to the extent to which the individual has acquired the habits that allow them to make steady and unending progress in the mastery of a skill, craft or body of knowledge.
The earliest writers about education stressed the importance of daily drill, study, practice and mastery. In the future a disciplined individual needs to continue to learn, not because she has been programmed to do so, but rather because she realises that given the accumulation of new data, knowledge and methods, she must become a lifelong student, and because she has become passionate about and to enjoy the process of learning about the world.
While the process of developing a disciplined mind is arduous, it can be fashioned and its achievement represents an indispensable milestone for the future. The synthesising mind is able to select crucial information from the copious amounts available, arraying that information in ways that make sense to self and others. The ability to knit together information from different sources into a coherent whole is vital today. The amount of accumulated knowledge is reportedly doubling every years. Sources of information are vast and disparate and individuals crave coherence and integration.
Nobel Prize-winning physicist Murray Gell-Mann has asserted that the mind most at a premium in the twenty-first century will be the mind that can synthesise well. Yet the forces that stand in the way of synthesis are formidable. Developing a disciplined mind that can think systematically within one scholarly discipline or profession is difficult, never mind trying to master a number of perspectives and then piece them together in a useful way.
In addition, individual cognition is remarkably domain-specific and is predisposed to learn skills in certain contexts. Few individuals have expertise in inculcating the skill of synthesis. Some common examples of synthesis could take the form of narratives, taxonomies, complex concepts, rules and aphorisms, powerful metaphors, embodiments without words, theories and metatheory. In general, any synthesis entails four loosely ordered components:. The mind of the young person is characterised by two powerful but contradictory features.
On the one hand, preschool children readily discern connections between many things, using their imaginations to use every day objects as imaginary props in their adventures. Preschool children love using metaphors to describe things. While they are excellent connectors, their connections are superficial and cannot be continued when trying to synthesise things in adulthood.
The natural human connecting ability is charming but hardly sufficient for adult life. On the other hand, by middle childhood, the human connecting impulse, while still there, has been chastened or corralled to where we shy away from proposing fresh comparisons for fear of them being inexact or illegitimate. In this way human beings turn out to be creatures that are quite context or site-specific and do not apply skills or concepts widely.
Professional training only reinforces these tendencies, making people more set in their ways of doing things and making it more difficult to transfer lessons from one area or discipline to another. Aristotle deemed the capacity to create apt metaphors as a sign of genius as it is such a difficult task for the average person to make comparisons between two differing fields. So how do you develop a synthesising mind, and is it possible to develop a disciplined mind while still keeping alive the potential for synthetic thinking?
We have already noted the strong tendency of young children to see and make connections easily.
This cognitive skill constitutes an invaluable deposit in ones intellectual bank that can be drawn upon at a later stage of life. Therefore we should be careful to celebrate and not censor or curtail the connections that are effortlessly made by young minds. For the most part, the synthesising mind achieves little formal attention during the school years.
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Exposure to the occasional adult synthesiser, mass media presentation and the reading of a wide range of books might prove productive in the development of connections in the long run. School projects and theme-related curricula can also help to aid the formation of connections, but it is important to provide explicit standards in judging these projects, taking care to explain that good connection need to come from the appropriate domain or discipline. Educators must keep open the possibilities of connection making and honour the plurality of appropriate connections while identifying those syntheses that are lacking or flawed.
Explicit instruction about forms of synthesis and hints about how to create them will be beneficial for young synthesisers to learn. Also, the more ways that an individual can represent the same idea or concept, the more likely they are to come up with a potent synthesis of those ideas, so children should be encouraged to find as many ways as possible to represent an idea from different angles. In addition it is important for young people to be exposed to multi-perspectivalism. This involves students acquiring a better understanding of a specific subject or concept if they can appreciate the various perspectives from different areas of study that explain it.
While a secondary-school student is not able to contribute original knowledge, they are able to appreciate the respective strengths of two or more perspectives and are therefore in a much stronger position to integrate or synthesise these strands of knowledge. The stance of multi-perspectivalism is very useful in the workplace. If different professionals from different fields working together can learn to anticipate the concerns of their colleagues then the prospect of productive, goal-directed teamwork is enhanced.
In addition, many projects are enhanced when individuals of different economic, social, ethnic, and racial backgrounds work together to find solutions. In the distant past, a comprehensive synthesising mind seemed within reach. Knowledge accumulated far more gradually and wise persons had at least a rough grasp of the full body of knowledge. But we live in a time where our most talented minds know more and more about increasingly narrow spheres.
The division of labour has swept the marketplace of ideas as well and there is no reason to expect the drive toward specialisation will be stemmed. Therefore, we need to make a concerted effort to develop this important mental capacity in society. The creating mind is able to go beyond existing knowledge and synthesis to pose new questions, offer new solutions, fashion works that stretch existing genres or configure new ones. In our globally wired society, creativity is sought after, cultivated and praised. But it was not always so.
In most human societies, throughout most of human history, creativity was neither sought after nor rewarded. In the past, creative individuals in society were at best a mixed blessing, often disdained, discouraged and even destroyed at the time of their breakthroughs. Our time is different. Almost every task that can be routinely carried out will be sooner or later taken over by computers. Virtually all innovation can be communicated almost instantly the world over, available to be built on by another with the requisite disciplinary skills, understanding and motivation.
Until recently, creativity was seen as the trait of certain individuals who could use this talent across various performance domains. However, in recent years this viewpoint has changed as we recognise a variety of relatively independent creative endeavours that do not stretch over to other areas.
Creativity occurs when an individual or group product, generated in a particular domain, is recognised by the relevant field as innovative and exerts a genuine, detectable influence on subsequent work in that domain. Quite simply, has the domain in which you operate been significantly altered by your contribution? There is a difference between creators and experts. An expert is an individual who, after a decade or more of training, has reached the pinnacle of current practice in their chosen domain.
The world depends on experts, but they are not creators. A creator stands out in terms of temperament, personality and stance. They are perennially dissatisfied with current work, standards, questions and answers. They strike out in unfamiliar directions and enjoy being different from the pack. They do not shrink away from the unexpected, but seek to understand it and determine whether it constitutes a trivial error or an important unknown truth. They are tough skinned and robust.
Creators fail frequently and often dramatically, but it is those who are willing to pick themselves up and try again that are likely to forge creative achievements. In education, an individual on a strict disciplinary track masters the key literacies and then begins a study of disciplines like mathematics, science and history on the way to becoming an expert. But too strict an adherence to a disciplinary track operates against the more open stances of the synthesiser or creator, and therefore options need to be kept open in order to not stifle the development of these freer minds.
Young children, before the age of formal schooling, express the height of creative powers; therefore, the challenge of the educator is to keep alive the mind and the sensibility of the young child. Accordingly, a generic formula can be put forth for the nurturing of creative minds in the first decade of life. Following a period of open exploration in early childhood, it is appropriate to master literacy and the disciplines. However, it is vital to keep open alternative possibilities and exploration, exposing youngsters to creative persons and introducing new pursuits.
In the middle childhood years, parents should make sure that their children pursue hobbies or activities that do not feature a single right answer, but where they can create and invent new things. Creating minds also need to develop multiple, diverse representations of the same entity. Such multiple representations are ideal for new ways of thinking about an entity, problem or question. As students enter adolescence, they become capable of envisioning possibilities that are quite different from their current realities.
Here elders have a responsibility to introduce instances and systems that operate according to different rules, allowing the adolescent mind to create from there. There are many parallels between the synthesising and the creating minds. Both require a baseline of literacy and discipline. Both benefit from the provision of multiple examples, exposure to multiple role models and the construction of multiple representations of the same general topic.
Indeed, no sharp line separates synthesis from creation and some of the best creations emerge from attempts at synthesis. Yet the impulses behind the two mental stances are distinctive.
Five Minds for the Future
The synthesiser seeks order, equilibrium and closure, with the creator is motivated by uncertainty, surprise, and continual challenge. No society can be composed only of creators for they are by nature destabilising. The respectful mind responds sympathetically and constructively to differences among individuals and among groups, seeking to understand and work with those who are different, extending beyond mere tolerance and political correctness.
Humans exhibit a deep-seated tendency to create groups, to provide distinctive marks for these collectives and to adopt clearly positive or negative attitudes towards neighbouring groups. We are inclined to delineate groups, to identify with and value members of our own group and to adopt caution when dealing with other groups. However, even if biological bases can be found for division between groups, every generation must attempt to deal with these stereotypes and prejudices and to overcome them for peace and unity.
While outlawing war and weapons in an attempt at bringing peach is a noble idea, it is a very unlikely solution. However, a more reasonable goal is the cultivation of respect for others. With more than 6-billion people inhabiting the planet, we need to learn how to inhabit the planet without hating one another, wanting to kill one another or acting on xenophobic inclinations. The concept of respect for one another expresses an acknowledgement of the differences between people without seeking to annihilate them, but to learn to live with them and value those who belong to other groups.
Detection of differences is part of human cognition and is impossible to stem, but how those differences are labelled and interpreted is a cultural phenomenon. By the age of five, the lines of friendship or hostility, group inclusion or exclusion, love or hatred are already drawn. What is important is whether young people attach moral significance to group membership. Is group A simply different from group B — which is ok, or is group A better or worse than group B?
The task of educators is to fashion persons who respect differences. In order to do this we need to provide models and offer lessons that encourage a sympathetic stance. Messages of respect or disrespect or intolerance are signalled throughout society. Genuine measures of respect are detectable every day when no one is actively looking. If one wishes to raise individuals who are respectful of differences across groups, a special burden is placed on education in the social sciences, the human sciences, the arts and literature.
These subjects cannot bypass issues of respect as they are not pure disciplinary studies, but need to confront directly the value of respect, the cost of respect and the greater costs of disrespect in the long run. Terrorism has many causes, but surely a feeling of alienation in ones current abode — often felt be the millions of immigrants from Africa, Asia and the poorer regions of Europe — is chief among them.
As one passes through the years of middle childhood and enters adolescence, a significant amount of time should be spent dealing with issues of group membership and conflict. In the workplace and in civil society respect is equally important. It is evident that organisations and communities work more effectively when the individuals within them seek to understand one another, to help one another, and to work together for common goals.
Examples of positive leadership are crucial here and clear penalties for disrespect. Also, respect within an organisation is difficult to maintain when those outside the organisation are deemed the enemy. After all, ones competitors are human too and after the next merger or takeover, you might find yourself inside the former rival. Also important in the workplace is how successful teamwork depends more on the management skills than the technical expertise of their leaders.
The amazing think about this book is that all the necessary qualities about the quintet minds are featured precisely and models are portrayed for all professional fields. It represents all the crucial ways to implement them as well. The book is about five different minds for the future that are needed for the individuals in the this fast-changing modern world in order to maximize gains and cultivate a very successfull society. Be it disciplined, synthesizing, creating, respectful, or ethical mind The amazing think about this book is that all the necessary qualities about the quintet minds are featured precisely and models are portrayed for all professional fields.
Be it disciplined, synthesizing, creating, respectful, or ethical mind, individuals must learn to adopt them and incorporate them into their lives whether they are working in a company, university, or any other place. I recommend this book only for those who are reseachers or those who are engaged in studying for the purposes related to higher education because it neither a self-help book nor is it an easy one to everyone.
Sep 13, Claudia rated it liked it Recommended to Claudia by: Kathy. Shelves: professional-reading. Maybe it was because I read this in one-hour chunks, but I never felt Gardner's passion for his five minds I can see this as an extension of his multiple intelligences, and this concept really fits my thinking better than MI did His five minds, disciplined, synthesizing, creating, respectful and ethical, are vital for all of us.
This is the goal of a quality education -- to create people who are disciplined, creative, respectful and ethical. His stories didn't resona Maybe it was because I read this in one-hour chunks, but I never felt Gardner's passion for his five minds His stories didn't resonate with me, somehow; I felt like he could have said it all in what is his epilogue But, when you're Howard Gardner, you can write the book Dec 28, Amaury Sautour rated it really liked it. I like the way Gardner presents the 5 described minds.
This book kind of gives you the incentive to go beyond simply "attending" your life: curiosity, ethics, creativity, knowledge, it doesn't just come in a second, it can be a life long experience that requires effort, but the effort is worth the pain. You need to be an active member of your world, need to be aware of the people around you and far away from you.
Give away selfishness and be a 21st century human being! Mar 01, Dayla rated it it was amazing Shelves: students , art. Howard Gardner gave self confidence to a lot of artistic children. Unfortunately, statistics indicate that artists usually are not financially compensated in their lifetime. So, I think that the school should be very clear about the realities of artistic dreams before moving your child in that direction at all costs. However, Gardner is always a great read.
Oct 14, JP rated it really liked it Shelves: non-fiction , arete. Howard Garner articulates a call to action that we prioritize five types of thinking he sees as critical for success in the modern world. They are: discipline, synthesis, creativity, respect, and ethics. Gardner's case is compelling.
May 10, Cone rated it really liked it Shelves: non-fiction , theory , business. Interesting look at different aspects of the mind that should be developed in order to become a fully functional and successful member of today's society. Aug 25, Mark rated it it was amazing Shelves: non-fiction-general. I decided to read something out of my comfort zone science , so I went to the beginning of the Dewey Decimal section of my local library and found this book. I got lucky. This is by the man who came up with the theory of multiple intelligences.
Unlike that idea which describes innate abilities, this book recommends the best types of use of the mind for the future. The five minds are: 1 Disciplined - expertise in a field 2 Synthesizing - relating known material from many fields 3 Creating - gene I decided to read something out of my comfort zone science , so I went to the beginning of the Dewey Decimal section of my local library and found this book.
The five minds are: 1 Disciplined - expertise in a field 2 Synthesizing - relating known material from many fields 3 Creating - generating new ideas 4 Respectful - considering and appreciating others points of view 5 Ethical - considering your actions with respect to workplace, discipline, community, and world My summaries can do justice to the deep ideas discussed in the nook. Gardner makes clear arguments and includes technical ideas from psychology, but never talks down to the reader.
You may not agree with every one of his points, but you must admire how he presents them. One bright spot in the book is the use of numerous specific examples to illustrate his points. I personal found a lot of connection with my own training as a chemist in terms especially for the first three. The last two, I found especially appropriate in my role as a teacher educator where it is crucial to produce respectful and ethical secondary school teachers.
There are a plethora of ideas about why these five minds are important and how to nurture them through family life, education, and work place practices. One can not read the book without being challenged on some aspect of their world view on education, work, and citizenship. I love books that are about ideas and make me think, and Gardner writes in a way that is understandable, clear, and enlightening. Nov 12, Sandeep Gautam rated it liked it Shelves: psychology. In this book, Gardner makes a case for the importance of five types of thinking or minds for the future: the disciplinary mind putting in 10, hrs to master a discipline and its way of thinking , the synthesizing mind interdisciplinary linkages , creative mind new ways of thinking or modifying a domain , respectful mind respecting others and ethical mind doing work that is good.
For those who are i In this book, Gardner makes a case for the importance of five types of thinking or minds for the future: the disciplinary mind putting in 10, hrs to master a discipline and its way of thinking , the synthesizing mind interdisciplinary linkages , creative mind new ways of thinking or modifying a domain , respectful mind respecting others and ethical mind doing work that is good. The problematic aspects of Gradner's writing consist in the high moral ground that he appears to take- for eg.
Also he thinks too much from societal perspective, assuming what is good for society is good for the individual. Overall a decent read that makes you think. May 15, Stefan H. While there are some solid points to be found, I believe, the read itself is gratuitous. I find Gardner to have interesting psychological theories and philosophical conceptions, but - so help me, God - I don't believe I will ever read another book of his.
As competently mentioned by other users, the work would have been better done as perhaps an article. Sure, I grant that the reading might be worth the tedium to understand the views and what he means by the types of minds; however, you could li While there are some solid points to be found, I believe, the read itself is gratuitous.
Sure, I grant that the reading might be worth the tedium to understand the views and what he means by the types of minds; however, you could likely find a competent knowledge in reading the first three pages of every chapter, save for the final. Chapter seven can be read in its entirety as it is a summary of what he posits, which demonstrates that the ideations themselves are fruitful. I'll attempt his work on multiple intelligences, but if it is anything like this, I am going to loathe reading it with every inkling of my being.
Aug 08, Dawn Colclasure rated it it was amazing. I enjoyed reading this book. It gave me a lot to think about. I also thought of how the five minds featured here are a part of a person at different stages of their life. In one sense, this is a job of synthesis—making sure that all five kinds of minds are developed. But equally, it is an ethical obligation: in the yea I enjoyed reading this book. But equally, it is an ethical obligation: in the years ahead, societies will not survive—let alone thrive—unless as citizens we respect and cultivate the quintet of minds vaporized here.
Good book! Sep 29, Faramarz Abedi rated it it was amazing. IT is such a brilliant and must work that every member of a society eager to internalize development in any aspect of their current and future lives should take it from their bookshelves and put it beside their bed to read, sleep and wake up with. Apr 29, Nikki rated it really liked it Shelves: education. Good book, lots of great points and ideas. It does read like a textbook, though, so that may be a little off-putting for your typical career field read.
Feb 17, Jose Mari rated it liked it. An great follow up to the idea about multiple intelligences and their synthesis. Jan 08, Edy Chandra rated it really liked it. Sep 15, Yuthea Sum rated it really liked it. Kinda love it, kinda meh. Aug 10, Lexi rated it really liked it Shelves: misc-nonfiction , insightful-nonfiction , business-management-etc.
Very interesting. Mostly focused on how to encourage the different kinds of 'minds' in formal education but I think as adults we can build the same skills. Mar 08, Konrad Joseph rated it really liked it. I've never rated a book 39 pages in - but Gardner's discussion on what real intellect means in today's world is so refreshing. Maybe a bit depressing. But at least someone else agrees with me. Oct 26, Herve Tunga rated it really liked it. Good starting point for a long lasting reflection on how to improve education to face the challenges of today and tomorrow.
Jun 01, Heather Nelson rated it it was ok. Could have easily been edited down to an article and saved a lot of repetition. Way too long to get the point across. There are no discussion topics on this book yet. Readers also enjoyed. About Howard Gardner. Howard Gardner. Howard Gardner is the John H. He has received honorary degrees from 26 colleges and univers Howard Gardner is the John H.
Five Minds for the Future by Howard Gardner
He has received honorary degrees from 26 colleges and universities, including institutions in Bulgaria, Chile, Greece, Ireland, Israel, Italy, and South Korea. In and again in , he was selected by Foreign Policy and Prospect magazines as one of the most influential public intellectuals in the world. The author of 25 books translated into 28 languages, and several hundred articles, Gardner is best known in educational circles for his theory of multiple intelligences, a critique of the notion that there exists but a single human intelligence that can be adequately assessed by standard psychometric instruments.
During the past two decades, Gardner and colleagues at Project Zero have been involved in the design of performance-based assessments; education for understanding; the use of multiple intelligences to achieve more personalized curriculum, instruction, and pedagogy; and the quality of interdisciplinary efforts in education.
Since the middle s, in collaboration with psychologist Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi and William Damon, Gardner has directed the GoodWork Project-- a study of work that is excellent, engaging, and ethical. More recently, with long time Project Zero colleagues Lynn Barendsen and Wendy Fischman, he has conducted reflection sessions designed to enhance the understanding and incidence of good work among young people. With Carrie James and other colleagues at Project Zero, he is also investigating the nature of trust in contemporary society and ethical dimensions entailed in the use of the new digital media.
Among new research undertakings are a study of effective collaboration among non-profit institutions in education and a study of conceptions of quality, nationally and internationally, in the contemporary era. Books by Howard Gardner. Trivia About Five Minds for th No trivia or quizzes yet. Welcome back.