The Aids Reader--Documentary History of a Modern Epidemic

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On the treatment side, experts stress the importance of having treatment readily available for those who are already addicted. Often that means going to where the people are, not waiting for them to seek out treatment themselves. Studies show the most effective treatment for opioid addiction often requires opioid medications like methadone or buprenorphine.

In the meantime, widespread distribution of naloxone — an overdose antidote — will save lives in acute cases. Public health experts advocate things like safe injection sites , where people could use drugs under medical supervision, and drug checking services that people could use to test drugs for fentanyl , but many in law enforcement remain reluctant to adopt such measures. The commission laid out a series of recommendations in its interim report, with a final report expected in October.

Some of the recommendations — like enhancing prescription drug monitoring programs and mandatory physician education on the dangers of opioids — are aimed at prevention. Some — expanding access to and funding development of medication-assisted treatment, eliminating Medicaid barriers to in-patient addiction treatment and enforcing laws that prevent health insurance companies from limiting mental health coverage — are aimed at treatment.

Of course, these are only recommendations. Experts know how to attack the problem. Trump to declare a national emergency. During a public health emergency, this law gives the secretary of health and human service broad authority to make grants, conduct investigations and waive or amend a variety of health regulations. For example, the opioid commission argued that the H. Since Medicaid pays for a significant portion of inpatient drug addiction treatment, the exclusion is a major obstacle.

Many states have been granted waivers from this regulation, but the onus is on each state to prove that it qualifies for one. The commission asserted that an emergency declaration would give the H. Please let us know. Please upgrade your browser. See next articles. George Bates. Percentage of deaths classified as drug-related. The chart includes both deaths from drug poisoning and those caused by drug-related mental disorders.

Sources: W. Something that acts on opioid receptors in the nervous system. Drug overdose deaths involving Distribution of drug deaths by age. In counties with fewer than 20 drug overdose deaths, the map combines observed totals with modeled estimates. Decades of opioid overprescription, an influx of cheap heroin and the emergence of fentanyl. Then in , fentanyl began entering the drug supply in large amounts. Drug seizures containing fentanyl. Source: D.

National Forensic Laboratory Information System. Average days of opioid use per resident per year.

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Values are three-year rolling averages for to Topics include the conquest of Africa in the age of the so-called 'New Imperialism', the French and British Civilizing missions in Africa and Asia, the emergence of modern ideas of race, immigration, freedom struggles in Asia and Africa, and postcolonial cultural and political developments across the world.

It will provide students with a critical historical knowledge of imperialism and globalisation and enable them to form a deep understanding of the postcolonial world. The module introduces students to a broad range of material and themes relevant to the history of medicine, highlighting changes and continuities in medical practice and theory as well as in medical institutions and professional conduct. The section on ancient medicine addresses the role of Greek writers such as Hippocrates. The section on medieval medicine focuses on major epidemics, the origins of medical institutions, and the role of medical care and cure in the context of social and demographic changes.

In particular, this section addresses the role of the Black Death and subsequent plagues, as well as the history of hospitals. The section on early modern and modern medicine explores the development of psychiatry and the asylum system in the 18th century, the rise of public health and the welfare state, and the role of social Darwinism and eugenics in the 19th and early 20th centuries.

For the late 19th and 20th centuries, the course will look at the role of gender and sexuality, medicine and modern warfare, health and disability, and modern medicine and medical ethics. The module will focus primarily on the period from the 18th century onwards but will begin with an outline treatment of the British colonies in North America from initial European settlement.

Interactions between Native American, African, African-American and European populations will be emphasised in the colonial period. Thereafter the module examines the first anti-colonial revolution in modern history and the creation of a new nation and concludes with the reconstitution of the nation after a bloody civil war and on the eve of large-scale industrialisation. Themes include the causes and consequences of the Revolution, the new political system, the development of mass democracy, economic development and territorial expansion into the West, reform movements, sectional conflict between North and South, slavery, the Civil War and the re-establishment of a national order during Reconstruction.

The module will introduce the students to the history of the U. S during its dramatic rise to industrial and international power. Beginning with the transformation of the U. S into an urban industrial civilisation at the end of the 19th Century, it ends with a review of the American position at the beginning of the 21st century. Themes include early 20th century reform, the rise to world power by , prosperity and the Depression, the New Deal, war and Cold War, race relations, Vietnam, supposed decline and resurgence from Nixon to Reagan, the end of the Cold War, and the Clinton Administration.

Why did the Roman Empire collapse? How did Christianity and Islam become so influential? How violent were the Vikings? When did countries like England, France and Germany come into being? This survey module provides an introduction to the history of Late Antiquity and the early Middle Ages, examining the major political events and social changes that transformed the Roman world and the Near East between c. Along the way, we shall consider such topics as identity, warfare, gender, religious life, rulership and law.

Students will obtain a clear understanding of the outlines of early medieval history between the later Roman Empire and the sweeping changes of the tenth century, as well as a sense of what daily life was like for most people and of the types of evidence historians can use to understand this period. The weekly lectures guide students through the module and their readings, while seminars provide opportunities to explore key historical problems and debates in more detail through the analysis of primary sources.

This module is a survey of medieval Europe from c. It includes elements of political, institutional, religious, social and cultural history. The module is intended to provide students with a foundation that will allow them to make the most of other courses in European history, particularly those focusing on the Middle Ages and Early Modern period, by equipping them with a grounding in geography and chronology, as well as in a variety of approaches to the study of history.

Lectures will provide an overview of some of the period's defining features including the feudal system; kingship; the crusades, warfare and chivalry; popes and anti-popes ; monasticism and the coming of the friars; heresy; visual culture; women and the family; and towns and trade. This module examines the principal themes of the political, social and cultural history of Britain during the Victorian era c.

The first section of the module will focus on the impact of the Enlightenment, and revolutionary approaches to social change, in France and Russia. In the final seminars, the wider impact of revolutionary ideas, including the concept of nationalism, will be explored in a wider European context. Topics covered will include: the Enlightenment; the French revolution; Jacobinism; the Napoleonic Empire; Russia under Peter the Great and Catherine the Great; the Decembrist revolt in Russia; nationalism in Europe; the revolutions of The art historian Aby Warburg — an avid reader of Thomas Carlyle's philosophical novel about clothes Sartor Resartus — said that a good costume, like a good symbol, should conceal as much as it reveals.

This module will take an interdisciplinary approach to the study of costume and fashion — the art that can be worn — in order to explore their roles in drama, film and the visual arts.

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The module will focus on postwar American cinema. The cinema of the period will be placed within the historical, cultural, political and artistic developments taking place around it. Students will be encouraged to explore the generative relationships between cinema and these other phenomena. Topics to be discussed will include but are not limited to cinema and the Vietnam War, Watergate, the birth of American performance art, rise in popular culture, the influence of European art cinema, the growth of American independent filmmaking.

Films will be chosen from those made inside and on the edges of Hollywood Independent and avant-garde. This module will offer students the rare opportunity to examine in detail the work of a single director or a group of directors. It will thus enable students to acquire a more complex understanding of the issues at stake in the production, distribution, and reception of a specific body of film work. The module will also develop students' knowledge and understanding of the questions, theories and controversies, which have informed critical issues and theoretical debates on film authorship.


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It will thus appeal to students who wish to extend their skills in analysing film form, meaning, and practice in both a conceptual and a historical context. This module studies individual genres, which may vary across different academic terms it may focus on the horror, science-fiction, western, musical, comedy, the noir or the gangster film, among others. It combines aesthetic and narrative analysis with the history of the genre. The theoretical framework draws from traditionally employed methods to study the genre in question for example, psychoanalytical, postmodern or cognitive theory.

The historical portion of the course examines the genre's growing commercial viability, the proliferation of subgenres, and the growing attention of academics. Topics include, but are not restricted to, gender politics, representations of sexuality, political commentary, allegory. This module addresses a series of documentary films in their historical context and in relation to the different modes of non-fiction filmmaking. Documentary narrative techniques including the use of archival footage, staged reconstructions of past events, and talking-head interviews, are investigated by means of close textual analysis and through a comparative approach to diverse documentary films.

This module also explores the boundaries between fiction and non-fiction and, while articulating a definition of documentary film, it studies film forms that present an interplay between the two, such as Mockumentaries and Essay Films. Cinema has typically been conceived of as an essentially visual phenomenon — films, it is often said, are essentially moving pictures. Sound has, nevertheless, played an important role from the beginnings of cinema, a fact which has been acknowledged in the detailed historical, theoretical and critical work on film music, and film sound more generally, produced over the last decade.

Sound and Cinema will provide an overview of this new field of research, and aim to provide students with a clearer understanding of and greater sensitivity to the soundtrack. The course will begin by setting up an introductory framework for the understanding of sound, which considers the relationship between music and other aspects of film sound dialogue, voice-over, effects , as well as the nature of the relationship between image and sound.

Subsequent sessions will consider the evolution of sound technology and its impact on the aural aesthetics of film; the use of classical and popular music in film scores; the emergence of sound designers, such as Walter Murch and Alan Splet, in contemporary cinema; and the distinctive and innovative use of sound and music by such diverse directors as Wim Wenders, Jean-Luc Godard, David Lynch, and William Raban. It is concerned with traditions of cinema which have, more or less self-consciously, formulated radically different aesthetics from those of the orthodox feature film, in which narrative is either radically reshaped, or displaced altogether by other concerns.

Throughout, the course will juxtapose films deriving from the historical avant-garde movements like the European avant-garde of the 20s, or the post-war American scene along with contemporary exponents of related forms of filmmaking. The first part of the course provides a conceptual and historical overview of avant-garde filmmaking in the Twentieth Century; subsequent weeks focus on specific topics, for example collage, landscape, experimental narrative, and the interaction between film, video and the new media.

This module examines different forms of narrative and storytelling in cinema in order to place film narration within the tradition of the 'popular' arts. Understanding a film involves making sense not only of its story, its events and actions, but also of its storytelling, of the way in which we come to learn of these events and actions. This module examines the ways in which the specific means of representation of cinema transform a showing into a telling.

It looks at theories of narrative in literature and film in relation to the different forms of narration and storytelling in cinema, focusing on questions of structure, reliability and temporality. The psychological and aesthetic role of narrative may be explored through a range of theories and analyses from within film studies and from other disciplines such as anthropology, literary studies, psychology and philosophy. The course will be taught through a series of case-studies using a wide range of films within American and world cinema.

This module offers students an introduction to the terms, ideas and craft, involved in the creation of screenplays. Screenwriting is a unique form of writing with very different concerns from the novel, theatre and radio. Although the screenplay is a vital component of a film's success, it tends to be neglected as a separate art form.

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In this module we explore the conventions of dramatic structure, new narrative forms and short film variations. Students are encouraged to think critically about screenplay writing and will have an opportunity to write their own screenplay.


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A selection of writing exercises have been designed to take them through the writing process; from preparation and initial concept to final draft. The emphasis here will be on practical knowledge and support as students uncover their creative voice. This module does not aim to provide vocational training for students wishing to pursue careers in the feature film or television industries.

This module provides an introduction to some key current industry practice surrounding working with actors. Students will explore the practice and ethics of the casting, as well as examining current UK and US industry trends and debates. The module also explores the role and expectations of the professional actor working in film.

By practical and theoretical exploration of mainstream acting methodologies, and practitioners such as Stanislavski, Mamet and Meisner, students will develop practical skills and vocabularies for engaging productively with actors on shoots and in rehearsal. The module will also examine the practice of working with non-actors as performers, and scrutinise some more unconventional working methods espoused by directors who may include, but are not limited to, Mike Leigh, John Cassavetes, Ken Loach, Roberto Rossellini etc.

Television is the most pervasive media form in daily life. In this introductory module students will look at the various historical, institutional and cultural factors that influence television production and programming. The module will examine a range of formats and genres such as soap operas, sitcoms and 'reality TV' and students will gain critical understanding of the theoretical frameworks developed for their study. In addition, questions of target audiences for example, children's programmes and key debates such as the role of a public service broadcaster will be addressed.

This module will look at disability in the arts, covering theatre, film and visual art. The students will engage with the historical representation of disability within the arts and the way in which disability scholars have critically engaged with it. The students will also look at arts institutions i. This will culminate in an 'accessibility review', whereby the students analyse the adjustments made by arts institutions for people with impairments and the extent to which they are effective.

Finally, the students will engage with examples of contemporary disabled artists whose impairments informs the aesthetic qualities of their work. This is a practice-based module exploring the photographic medium and the contexts of its use through the production of photographs in response to a project brief and group-based critical discussion of the work produced. Students investigate how the context in which photographs are made affect how the world is represented, and how in turn these images shape perception. Students choose three practical project briefs that are designed to enable them to explore the medium creatively and through informed and reflective practice.

The emphasis of the module is upon this creative practice rather than the acquisition of specific technical skills, and as such students are at liberty to use any photographic production and post-production technologies they wish to experiment with or find appropriate. A camera phone and access to a computer and printer are all that is needed for this module, though students who wish to make use of digital image processing or analogue processes, including use of a darkroom, are encouraged to do so.

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Each of the practical project briefs will be supported through a series of lectures closely examining various genres, styles and other contexts of photographic production through the work of those who have shaped them. In addition students will present the work they have produced in response to their project briefs, and engage in a broad critical discussion or their own and other's work. This module is meant to introduce students to the key processes and dynamics of sub-Saharan African history during the past two centuries.

The course covers three chronological periods: the pre-colonial, colonial and post-colonial eras. In their study of the pre-colonial period students, will especially familiarize themselves with the changing nature of African slavery and the nineteenth-century reconstruction of political authority in the face of economic, environmental and military challenges. The colonial period forms the second section of the course. Here, students will gain an understanding of the modalities of the colonial conquest, the creation and operation of colonial economies and the socio-cultural engineering brought about by European rule.

The study of the colonial period will end with an analysis of African nationalisms and decolonisation. In the final part of the course, students will develop an understanding of the challenges faced by independent African nations. Society has always been fascinated by those deemed different and over time, unusual people have been viewed and constructed in a myriad of ways.

The course explores the continuities and changes surrounding those classed as different. Broadly, the course will investigate the changing nature of difference from the s to the s. It will examine the body and mind as contested sites; spaces occupied by those considered different; the establishment of normality versus deviance; the changing conceptions of difference over time; relationships between unusual people and the wider society.

Using a broad range of sources, from novels to film, the course will trace the shifting cultural constructions of difference. This module will offer a comparative study of the armies of the Great Powers during the First World War. This module will therefore seek to answer some of the key questions of the Great War: how did the Great Powers manage to raise and sustain such large armies, why did soldiers continue to fight, given the appalling casualty rates; how politicised were the armies of the Great War, why were politicians allowed to embark on foolhardy military adventures, how crucial were the Americans in securing Entente victory and how effectively were economies adapted to meet the demands of the armies?

Comparative topics for discussion in seminars will include; planning for war, recruitment and conscription, the officer corps, generals and politicians, discipline and morale; and attitudes to technological advances. Focusing on the history of modern Germany in the Twentieth Century, the module examines major changes and continuities in the development of a highly advanced, industrialised but also militarised European nation state which played a central role in shaping the modern European geographical and political landscape.


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The module explores the end of the Imperial Monarchy after the end of the First World War in , the role of the Allied reparation demands, hyper-inflation and political instability of the Weimar Republic, and the rise of National Socialism and the Third Reich during the s. The course will chart the influence of anti-Semitism, racial eugenics and geopolitics in Germany's quest for world domination during the Second World War and assess the legacy of the Holocaust in defining post-war German identity and society. By examining the Federal Republic of Germany FRG and the German Democratic Republic GDR , the module will take a critical look at the politics, ideology and day-to-day history Alltagsgeschichte of East and West German society during the Cold War, and explore the underlying factors which led to the fall of the Berlin wall in and subsequent German reunification.

This course is all about putting History 'in its place', in other words, examining the history of modern Britain through the analytical lens of environmental history and exploring the ways humans have used, adapted, and imagined various environments over time. Taking as its starting point, it looks at major transformations in British life — the social and ecological problems of the Victorian city; changing attitudes towards nature preservation; empire and ecological imperialism; war, chemicals and modernity; environmental revolutions and radical protest - to chart the ways in which successive generations interacted in meaningful ways with the spaces and other species around them.

This is a story both of material changes and of cultural values — our interactions with and our imaginations of the modern world. Accordingly, themes of urbanisation, politics and environmental change; health, medicine and wellbeing; national identity, gender and cultural life will be explored through a series of case studies that take in such topics as 'Miasma and Manure: Public health in 19th century London' and 'Ban the Bomb: the Cold War, nuclear technology and popular protest. Between the founding of the republic and the middle decades of the nineteenth century, the United States came of age.

The nation's population increased tenfold; its territory more than doubled. Driven by the high-minded ideals out of which the country had been founded, and the restless energy that saw a nation of thirteen colonies grow into a territorial republic of immense size, the United States became a symbol of a tumultuous century.

In time, however, the republic would become a casualty of its own success. As the s wore on, a battle over slavery and its place in a rapidly changing nation unraveled into sectional conflict, secession, civil war and a decade's long struggle after the war ended. The result was the largest forced emancipation of slaves in world history, and a conflict of barely calculable carnage. For better and for worse, the Civil War and its aftermath would become the great crucible into which a modern United States was born.

This module surveys the origins, conflicts and outcomes of the Civil War by not only understanding how the war altered the United States but understanding the Civil War and its aftermath in a broader context. Students will examine the causes and consequences of the conflict, by looking backwards to the roots of sectionalism and secession, and forwards into the postwar period, known as Reconstruction.

The purpose of this module is to understand how all of these historical forces sowed the seeds of the republic's demise, while at the same time examining what kind of new nation Americans created in the ashes of the old one.

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Out of the war would come not only a new nation, but a fundamentally different United States. The violent collapse of slavery and the destruction of the plantation system brought profound change and innumerable conflicts, long after the South capitulated and two national armies laid down their weapons. In the wake of the war, Americans would attempt to construct a new republic, born as Abraham Lincoln urged in , out of a 'new birth of freedom. Often described as the 'Jewel in the Crown', British India played a key role economic, strategic, military in the expansion and consolidation of British Empire.

In the 18th century India had been a territory held by the English East India Company; by the midth century India became a crown colony and an integral part of the British Empire for reasons that included both resources and a role in enhancing imperial prestige. Focusing mainly on the nineteenth century, this module explores the processes through which India became a colony and its broader impact on the British Empire. More specifically, the purpose of the module is to impart in students a critical understanding of the relationship between India and the British Empire, especially the ways in which India influenced imperial policies social, economic in both metropolitan Britain and in the wider British dominions and colonies.

In short, this module offers a survey of the complex, long and historically consequential relation between India and the British Empire. How common was trial by combat in medieval society? Why did individuals sometimes voluntarily enter slavery? What could a woman do if she wished to divorce her husband? These are the kinds of questions students will consider in this module on law and order in early medieval Europe. Legal texts are among the most voluminous sources to have survived from the early Middle Ages, providing fascinating perspectives on government and the reach of the state, dispute settlement, courts and trials, social relations, literacy, the influence of the Church and more.

While the bulk of our material comes from Merovingian and Carolingian Francia, we shall also consider evidence from other regions, including the Byzantine world, Anglo-Saxon England and Visigothic Spain. Different types of legal records will be studied in order to learn how early medieval societies were regulated and how rulers attempted to govern their realms. By examining law, custom and justice in theory and in practice, students will gain an appreciation for the ideals of early medieval law and government, as well as the thornier realities of its operation in society at large.

Between and Britain engaged in only one European war. The Empire was, therefore, the most consistent and most continuous influence in shaping the army as an institution and moulding public opinion of the army. The central focus will be on the campaigning in Africa and India, exploring how a relatively small number of British soldiers managed to gain and retain control of such vast territories and populations. Through an examination of a wide range of literary and visual primary sources, the module will also explore how the imperial soldier specifically and imperial campaigning generally were presented to and reconfigured by a domestic audience.

Cultures never develop and grow in isolation. They are built on the values of past generations, and they are shaped and challenged in interaction with other cultures. The main objective of this module is to explore and present the powerful interaction between Europe and the Islamic world in early modern times, c. The course will firstly provide an overview of the rise and fall of three major Islamic states and empires the Abbasid Caliphate, the Safavid Empire, the Ottoman Empire. It will then assess the early modern European encounter with the Islamic world 1 by discussing the scholarly, religious, political and economic incentives for this encounter; 2 by documenting the exchange of knowledge, ideas, values and material objects this encounter stimulated in the early modern period; 3 by exploring the enormous impact, which this encounter had on European civilization.

The course will focus on the following topics and areas of life:. The French Revolution continues rightly to be regarded as one the great turning points of modern European History. This course will introduce students to the political, social and economic context of France from the accession of Louis XVI to the rise of Napoleon Bonaparte.

It will explore and assess the divergent interpretations for the origins of the revolutionary conflagration of There will also be an attempt to understand how a revolution based on the triad 'liberty, equally and fraternity,' lost of sight of its humanitarian aspirations and quickly descended into fratricidal political terror and warfare on a trans-European scale.

Students will also be encouraged to cast a critical eye on the vexed question of the French Revolution's contribution to modern political culture. This module covers fundamental transformations taking place in European society between c. It focuses specifically on the everyday experiences of early modern Europeans, and how these changed as a result of, amongst others, global expansion, encounters with 'others', religious change, urbanisation and a innovation proliferation of new goods.

Through looking at how these transformations affected the micro-level of men and women in their daily lives, this module aims to give insight into the ever-changing lives of Europeans before the onset of 'modernisation' in the 19th century. Themes that will be addressed in the lectures and seminars include ethnic and religious diversity, gender, the individual, witchcraft and material culture. What were the experiences of 'outsiders' who did not conform to Nazi ideals?

What was it like to live in an occupied country during the Second World War? This course, which is structured in two parts, examines both Germany during the Third Reich and Vichy France under German occupation. No previous war matched it in scale and brutality. The military history and the course of events have been told many times. This course, by contrast, focuses on the social and cultural upheavals of the Great War. The aim is to move beyond narrow military history and examine the war's socio-cultural impact on British and European societies. Furthermore, it hopes to overcome historians' fixation with national histories.

The First World War was, by definition, a transnational event and this course will fully explore the comparative method. How it reacted to the crushing defeats of in France and in the Far East before transforming itself into a war-winning force. The course will begin with the inter-war army examining its lack of doctrine and the confused role it had in British and imperial defence plans. From there it will move on to examine the transformation of the army from a pre-war small professional outfit to a vast conscript army, before concluding on the situation in , the retention of peacetime conscription and adaptation to the Cold War world.

It will take a broad approach to military history, studying the political, economic and cultural realities behind the force. This module explores the place of death within medieval European culture, focusing especially on the visual and material evidence of relics, tombs, architecture, wall paintings, and illuminated manuscripts.

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It will begin by examining how ideas about death and the dead were expressed in works of art from Late Antiquity until the arrival of the Black Death in Our primary sources will be set within the context of literary, visual, documentary and liturgical evidence. Together, we will examine these sources from different disciplinary perspectives in attempt to determine how the study of medieval death and contemporary anxieties about the afterlife can inform us about how people lived in the Middle Ages.

Condemned by the international community for refusing to sign the Kyoto Accords, rendered powerless by electricity blackouts, and stricken by the Hurricane Katrina disaster, the United States of America is today embroiled in a narrative of environmental controversy and catastrophe. Commencing with an introductory session on writing and researching American environmental history, the module is then split into four sections: Science and Recreation, Doomsday Scenarios, Environmental Protest, and Consuming Nature. But it was hard to ignore the death toll, whatever its sociological implications.

A disproportionate number of AIDS victims, it turned out, were poor and anonymous, but there were also a lot who acted, painted, sang, danced and in one way or another contributed to the public creative life of the nation. AIDS was not always listed as the official cause of death, but a generation of choreographers--from Michael Bennett to Arnie Zane--seemed to be dying off at the peak of their creative powers.

Award-winning New York dancer and choreographer Bill T. Subsequent AIDS-related deaths in the movie and television industries ranged in estimates from to 1,, with precise figures hard to come by because of the continuing stigma attached to the disease. During the initial panic, when it was believed falsely that the virus could be transmitted through saliva, a number of actresses said they would not do kissing scenes with actors they believed to be gay.

More significantly, the incidence of AIDS in Hollywood threatened the jobs and health benefits of some studio employees diagnosed as carrying the virus, as studio executives contended with rising insurance premiums. While the entertainment industry publicly lamented the crisis and raised millions of dollars through highly visible, star-studded benefits, behind the scenes some members of the Hollywood community worried that it was mostly for show. The worlds of classical music and opera were also affected. The worst hit was the New York City Opera, where general director Beverly Sills observed in June, , that the company had lost two dozen members, including singers, musicians and staff.





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